Journal Article

Feedback-Feedforward Scheduling of Control Tasks

Anton Cervin, Johan Eker, Bo Bernhardsson, Karl-Erik Årzén


A scheduling architecture for real-time control tasks is proposed. The scheduler uses feedback from execution-time measurements and feedforward from workload changes to adjust the sampling periods of the control tasks so that the combined performance of the controllers is optimized. The performance of each controller is described by a cost function. Based on the solution to the optimal resource allocation problem, explicit solutions are derived for linear and quadratic approximations of the cost functions. It is shown that a linear rescaling of the nominal sampling frequencies is optimal for both of these approximations. An extensive inverted pendulum example is presented, where the performance obtained with open-loop, feedback, combined feedback and feedforward scheduling, and earliest-deadline first scheduling are compared. The performance under earliest-deadline first scheduling is explained by studying the behavior of periodic tasks under overload conditions. It is shown that the average values of the sampling periods equal the nominal periods, rescaled by the processor utilization.

Real-Time Systems, 23:1--2, pp. 25–53, July 2002.

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